What is Nano?
The word nano stands for nanometer, one billionth (10−9) of a meter that defines a length scale influencing their fundamental properties such as mechanical, thermal, electrical, magnetic, optical, and aesthetic properties for the materials [1]. The properties of materials at the nanoscale can be very different from those at a larger scale depending on the alteration of the surface to volume ratio. When the size drops below 100 nm, these fundamental properties of material dramatically change [2].



What is the subject of interest of the Nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology have influenced deeply the world economy and society in the early 21st century, comparable to other technologies such as semiconductor technology, information technology, or cellular and molecular biology. The main topic of the nanotechnology is related to the production and application of physical, chemical, and biological systems at scales ranging from individual atoms or molecules to submicron dimensions [2]. Nanotechnology offer the possibility of creating materials with novel combinations of properties, devices in the nanoscale use less energy, material and other consumables as well as a universal fabrication technology [3].


Classification of Nanomaterials
Although a nanomaterial is defined as a material that has one or more external dimensions or internal or surface structure in the nanoscale, the nanomaterial class of materials are categorized as 0-D (nanoparticles), 1-D (nanowires, nanotubes, and nanorods), 2-D (nanofilms and nanocoatings), or 3-D (bulk), which represent the number of dimensions that are not at the nanoscale. Nanomaterials can be produced from several materials such as metallics, ceramics, polymers and composites. Metallic materials represent naturally metallic-type bonds so that they are good thermal and electrical conductors, particularly at RT. In some cases, nonmetallic such as carbon, silicon, and nitrogen elements can be added into metallic elements such as copper, nickel, and aluminum. This mixture is called a metallic alloy and the best example of a metallic alloy is steel, which is composed of iron and carbon. Ceramics are hard, brittle and good insulator due to their ionic and covalent types of bonds. Also, they have good resistance against the corrosion. Glasses, bricks, stones, and porcelain are well known ceramic materials. Polymers consist of long molecules composed of many organic molecule units that are divided into natural polymers such as wood, rubber, and wool; biopolymers such as proteins, enzymes, and cellulose; and synthetic polymers such as Teflon and Kevlar. They represent good insulation and good corrosion resistance. The other favored material used in the production of the nanomaterials is composites because these are formed of two or more materials with very different properties, which act synergistically to create properties that cannot be achieved by each single material alone. The one of the materials of the composite acts as a matrix, whereas the other materials act as reinforcing phases such as metal-matrix, ceramic-matrix, or polymer-matrix [1].



The application areas of Nanoproducts
The products by nanotechnologies take place in wide variety application areas such as electronics and computing, energy, medical, constructions, paintings, textiles etc. For example, Carbon nanotubes are widely used for storing energy or improving the efficiency of screens and batteries. These products are used in paintings for cleaning and microbial resistance in house, cars, marine vehicles etc. In the textile field, nano is used for protecting the clothes from stain and microbial contamination as improving the coating and hydrophobicity. The another important issue that is the tissue engineering applications such as drug delivery and artificial organs or body parts can not be even possible for right now, the attempts on this way can be help to treat the some of the common diseases.


[1] Schodek, Daniel L., Paulo Ferreira, and Michael F. Ashby. Nanomaterials, nanotechnologies and design: an introduction for engineers and architects. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009.
Bhushan, Bharat. Springer handbook of nanotechnology. Springer, 2006.
Ramsden, Jeremy. Nanotechnology: an introduction. William Andrew, 2011.